I’d like to think my wife and I are on pleasant enough terms where I am never going to ask
Marriage and money concept of high wedding cost and divorcemyself this question: can I disinherit my spouse?  But the decision to disinherit somebody doesn’t always come about because you don’t like each other; there can be other reasons why it makes sense to leave your assets to someone other than your spouse.

One such reason might be that your spouse simply has enough assets in his or her own name and you have both agreed that your assets are best used somewhere else . . . perhaps in a trust for the education of your grand kids, or maybe for a charity that you support.  Another reason could be estate taxes — by leaving assets to another person (or to a trust), you prevent your spouse’s estate from getting so large that estate taxes will be due on his or her passing.  Yet another reason may be a concern that your spouse will be taken advantage of when you are gone, and you want assets to be held for him or her by a trustee.  So: can I disinherit my spouse?

Spousal Rights

The most important part of this answer is this: in Minnesota, you cannot — ever — disinherit your spouse through your will or trust document (by itself).  In Minnesota your spouse has a guaranteed right to his or her spousal share.  This means that even if your will is drafted to give all of your money goes to charity, and you change all of the beneficiaries of you IRAs and life insurance (your “non-probate” assets) to the names of your children, your spouse still has certain rights including the right to live in the house for his or her life and for some monthly support from the estate.

According to Minnesota law, your spouse also has a right to a percentage of the augmented estate.  The augmented state is (simplified) the value of your stuff plus the value of your spouse’s stuff.  If you and your spouse have been married for only a year, your spouse has a guaranteed right to three percent of the augmented estate.  This percentage increases every year of marriage until year fifteen, in which your spouse has a guaranteed right to fifty percent of the augmented estate — regardless of what you’ve written in your will or other planning documents, and regardless of how you’ve written your beneficiary designation for your non-probate accounts.   It follows that if at the fifteen-year mark the surviving spouse has more than fifty percent of your combined assets in his or her name already, then those assets already exceed half of the augmented estate and there is no additional claim to a spousal share.

Waiver of Rights

So, your spouse has a guaranteed, inalienable right to get a portion of your estate, right?  Not so fast.  There are three ways your spouse can forfeit his or her share.

  1. Pre-nuptial agreement:  Properly drafted, a pre-nuptial agreement can allow you and your spouse to disinherit each other.
  2. Post-nuptial agreement:  Your spouse can agree after you are married to forfeit certain property rights. This includes the right to his or her spousal share.
  3. Consent to will:  Your spouse can sign an acceptance of the terms of your will, including a will that completely disinherits him or her.

You’ll notice that all three of these options involve your spouse affirmatively giving permission to you to give his or her share to someone else.  This makes sense, since the spousal share is at its core a property right, and we can give away our property as we choose.  Your attorney should use extreme caution when drafting any of these three documents: your spouse should have his or her own attorney review the terms of the document to make sure he or she understands what is being given up and any consequences of doing so.

Disinheriting anyone is a big decision that can carry big legal consequences.  Make sure you contact an attorney who is experienced in estate planning before making any major decision that affects your loved ones.  Done properly, there are ways your assets may better serve your family than if they are all left to your husband or wife.  Please contact me so I can help.

creates wills and trusts for families who want to feel secure that their loved ones are cared-for. Philip is a trust and estate attorney based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Philip is the author of Trustee University: The Guidebook to Best Practices for Family Trustees. available at Amazon.com in paperback or Kindle edition (free chapter available here!) He also works with trustees and beneficiaries who need help with their trusts. You can contact him here.

Keywords: trusts and estates, Minnesota wills, revocable trusts, estate attorney, probate, estate planning

When most people think of completing estate planning documents such as a will or trust
agreement, they think of how they would pass their assets to their loved ones. And indeed Rewardthat is the reason we create these documents, to make sure our loved ones are cared-for once we pass. But one of the best estate planning tools (to be used together with your estate planning documents) is to gift your assets to your loved ones while you are still alive. Lifetime giving has a number of benefits, both financially and otherwise.


Who doesn’t want to see the looks on the faces of those they care about most when their loved ones receive help with their student loans or with the down payment for their first home? Of course your family members would be grateful for receiving this same gift after your passing, but being able to revel in your family’s happiness is part of the reason we accumulate assets in the first place. Spreading the feelings of security and freedom that go with having some extra money is as fulfilling as any reason to share these gifts with your loved ones while you are able to witness their smiles first hand. A friend told me about the time they got a lovely watch for a partner. He found it on men’s watches online. Likewise, the beneficiaries of your gifts will get to share the experience with you. Just only give them this sort of present if this is something that they are in to. For example if you are getting a present for someone who is an avid gamer, then you should get them something like these unranked Smurfs accounts for them to enjoy instead.


As an attorney, I do my best to keep costs under control for my clients. This ensures that the client feels he or she has received value for my services while I am able to maintain an efficient client relationship. Nonetheless, lawyer fees are lawyer fees, and if I am working to transfer property with the help of a probate judge, that is going to cost your beneficiaries money. If you transfer that car, those stock shares, or that cash while you are alive, you’re going to save some attorney fees because it is easier to transfer property while you are still alive. People often want to avoid the probate process specifically because it can be expensive.

Estate Taxes

This applies more to large estates than small or medium estates, but paying federal gift taxes on a transfer of property is cheaper than paying estate taxes for the exact same transfer after death. This is true even though the exclusion amounts and tax rates for these two taxes are identical. This is because gift taxes are exclusive, while estate taxes are inclusive. When I transfer money or assets by making a lifetime gift and owe federal gift taxes, those taxes are going to be paid by me, and will then be out of my estate . . . that tax money I just paid is now out of my estate for good, and will itself not be taxed . . . it will be excluded. If I make these gifts at death via my will or other estate planning vehicle, that tax is assessed on my gross estate. That means the money I will have to use to pay my estate taxes will itself also be taxed: it’s included. Lifetime gifts will therefore be subject to fewer federal estate taxes than those made at death because the money used to pay the estate taxes is also itself subject to taxation. I’ll emphasize that this benefit does not apply to most Americans . . . the current federal and estate tax exemption, as of this writing, is $5,340,000 per person, which means its $10,680,000 for a married couple. That’s some big gifts that you’ll have to make before you owe any federal gift or estate taxes.


When you hold on to an asset that appreciates in value, eventually you may have to deal with estate taxes which will be assessed on the value of that asset at your death. If you have an asset that you believe will appreciation significantly over your lifetime, consider making a lifetime gift to a beneficiary or to a trust for a beneficiary. For example, if you started a small business and you owned closely-held shares of that business, you may consider giving some of these shares to your children today (taking into account possible gift tax issues). That way, as the business appreciates in value, those shares will also appreciate out of your estate.

Proceed with Caution

There are a couple tax rules that will apply to most people. First, gifts of appreciated property made after-death get a huge tax break in the form of a step-up in cost basis. If I were to buy a share of stock for one dollar (which means the stock has a cost basis of one dollar) and it increases in value to $100 and I sell it, I’ll owe capital gains taxes on $99 (the sale price minus the cost basis of one dollar). This is because the sale of the stock realized a capital gain of $99. If buy that same share of stock for one dollar, then it increases to $100 and I give it to my family member, they will keep my same cost basis. Because of this, if my family member subsequently sold it they would again realize that same $99 capital gain, and would owe capital gains taxes. If, however, I gave that same share of stock to that same family member after my death, that capital gain would “reset” . . . the new cost basis would be the value of the stock on the day I died. That means if I buy a share of stock for one dollar, it appreciates and is valued at $100 when I die, the family member who gets that share of stock now has a cost basis of $100. If he or she sells it for $100, it is completely free of capital gains taxes. This step-up in basis is a valuable estate planning tool, and is ideal for property that has appreciated significantly.

Note that this would not apply to assets that do experience capital gains, such as cash. Note also that qualified charities can receive shares of appreciation stock (or other assets) and sell these assets for cash and pay no taxes whatsoever. This is because qualified charities are tax exempt, which includes capital gains taxes. Assets that have appreciated in value are usually best given to charities or to your heirs at your passing.

Another thing to watch out for is the annual gift tax exclusion amount, which is as of this writing $14,000. This means you can give up to $14,000 per year, per person. You could give $14,000 to each of your children, another $14,000 to any of your friends, etcetera. If you exceed this amount to any single person, you will typically have to file a gift tax return (Form 709) with the IRS. This is because any amount you gift to any one person over $14,000 gets subtracted to your lifetime exemption ($5,340,000, as mentioned above). The IRS wants to track how much of your lifetime exemption you have used. You may not owe tax, but you’re still going to have to file the form

Your Plan

Making lifetime gifts is a satisfying and generally straight forward method of estate planning. It helps your family today while possibly saving on taxes. But beware of pitfall — there are rules about how much you can give without running afoul of some complex gift and estate tax rules. Lifetime gifts are to be used in conjunction with — and not instead of — a comprehensive estate plan. A qualified estate planning attorney can guide you through these rules. I’m here to help.

creates wills and trusts for families who want to feel secure that their loved ones are cared-for. Philip is a trust and estate attorney based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Philip is the author of Trustee University: The Guidebook to Best Practices for Family Trustees. available at Amazon.com in paperback or Kindle edition (free chapter available here!) He also works with trustees and beneficiaries who need help with their trusts. You can contact him here.

Keywords: trusts and estates, Minnesota wills, revocable trusts, estate attorney, probate, estate planning

The executor of your will is the individual you appoint to guide your estate through the probate process, which is the court proceedings by which a judge supervises the division closeup of a Last Will and Testament documentof your estate.  Commonly called a Personal Representative, this fiduciary will see to it that your wishes are carried out and that the instructions you leave in your will are followed.  But make sure your affairs are in order with a properly drafted plan; attorney John O. McManus points out in this Daily Finance article that “a common adage in the industry is to name your enemy as your executor as a means of revenge.”  Being an executor can be a tough job.

First and foremost, if you are married, you should consider appointing your spouse as your executor.  Your spouse has the biggest stake in your life and your death, and it makes sense that he or she is in control of the finances.  Your spouse is also most likely to be the person around whom the rest of your family — such as children and your surviving siblings — will revolve at your passing.  Strong family relationships are an important consideration for an executor.

If you do not want to appoint an immediate relative or your spouse, you might want to consider someone you know with an accounting or law background.  The settlement of an estate is a legal process that may require some tax knowledge.  If your executor does not have this background, he or she can always hire a professional.

Be careful when appointing an executor who is also getting some of your assets — there is an inherent conflict of interest when you appoint an executor who is also a beneficiary.  If the individual is trustworthy and enjoys good relationships with the other beneficiaries, this may not be a problem.  But it’s a situation where disputes can be common; after all, the executor is going to be interpreting the language of the will, and if it is perceived that the beneficiary-executor is interpreting ambiguous language in his or her favor, this can pose a problem.

Do you own a business?  Your executor will be in charge of this business interest while the estate is being administered.  If your interest is silent or if winding the business down is an easy task, then this may not be an issue . . . but if it is a labor-intensive operation with employees and specialized knowledge, the executor is going to have a tough time while he or she continues to run things.  It is very important that you have a succession plan in place for your business . . . consider appointing an executor who is familiar with running your company.

In short, your executor should be someone you trust, who is familiar with your assets, and who can maintain positive relationships with the beneficiaries of your estate.  This person can certainly be a beneficiary of the will, but this really works best when your will has been drafted appropriately and unambiguously . . . make sure you have consulted with a professional so that your plan is coherent and thorough.  Put another way by attorney McManus, “If you appoint someone you love as executor, get your house in order.  Otherwise, appoint someone you do not.”  Let me know if I can help.

creates wills and trusts for families who want to feel secure that their loved ones are cared-for. Philip is a trust and estate attorney based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Philip is the author of Trustee University: The Guidebook to Best Practices for Family Trustees. available at Amazon.com in paperback or Kindle edition (free chapter available here!) He also works with trustees and beneficiaries who need help with their trusts. You can contact him here.

Keywords: trusts and estates, Minnesota wills, revocable trusts, estate attorney, probate, estate planning

If you’re like most Americans, the bulk of your liquid assets are held in retirement plans such as a 401(k) or an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). These are great places to stash retirement funds — company matches and tax-deferred growth (or tax-free growth, in the case of Roth plans) jump-start these savings plans in a way not available for non-retirement assets. If used properly, this will create a comfortable retirement nest egg that will carry you through your post-career life. You’re likely to need money for a variety of things in your retirement, from moving to a more suitable home like this bungalow king city, to taking part in new hobbies and social activities. If you have excess cash and you’re thinking you might want to try investing or trading in stocks look into companies that offer stock market guidance and tips like Stocktrades and others.

401k - Nest EggBut what happens after that? There is a good chance that at least some of these assets will outlive you, and you may have other family members to care for (such as a surviving spouse). The tax-deferred nature of qualified retirement funds presents unique challenges and opportunities for your family as you contemplate your estate planning. The biggest thing to consider is who you will list as the beneficiaries of these plans; as far as taxes are concerned, all beneficiaries are not created equal. Speaking strictly from the standpoint of tax liability, the best beneficiaries are charities, followed by a surviving spouse, then other family members, and lastly (and definitely least), outright to your estate.

First, understand that marketable assets such as stocks and bonds receive a step-up in cost basis at the death of the owner. Consider if I bought a share of stock for $1, and then the value of that share few to $100 and I sold it. During my life, I would have to pay capital gains tax on the $99 gain I received from this sale (the sale of the stock at $100, less my cost basis of $1). If instead I died and left the share of stock to a child, the child gets a new cost basis of the value of the share of stock when I died. If that value was $100, then the child gets that share of stock with a cost basis of $100. If he or she then turned around and sold that share for $100, that child has received the stock completely tax-free, assuming my estate is below federal estate tax levels. The step-up in basis erased any capital gains and the tax liability that would have gone with those gains.

Those same assets held in a tax-deferred retirement plan such as a 401(k) or IRA do not receive this step-up in cost basis . . . all distributions from these retirement funds, whether they be to you or to a beneficiary, are taxed as ordinary income when they are withdrawn from the retirement plan. If I make $50,000 from my job, and I receive $10,000 from a tax-deferred retirement fund, then I pay taxes as if I made $60,000. That’s going to be much more tax than if I instead received an inheritance from assets that are not taxed as ordinary income (such as an after-tax brokerage account).

Because these gifts contain built-in tax liability, tax-deferred retirement assets are the best assets to give to charities, if you are charitably-minded. Because qualified charities do not pay any taxes on gifts they receive, they are the ideal beneficiaries of any estate asset that carries income or capital gains tax liability because your gift to goes further than if it were given to someone who will have to use a part of that gift to pay taxes. This makes qualified charities the perfect beneficiary of high-tax assets such as tax-deferred retirement assets.

For those not so inclined, you should next consider leaving these assets to your spouse. Your surviving spouse will be able to treat qualified retirement assets as if they were part of his or her own retirement account . . . this typically means he or she could defer taking distribution (and owing income tax) until the spouse 70 ½ years old, which is the age at which individuals are required to begin taking their required minimum distributions (RMDs) from qualified plans. Even then, they will only be require to pay taxes on the required minimum distribution amount (an amount that is calculated based on the surviving spouse’s life expectancy), and will enjoy continued tax-deferred growth for the assets that remain in the retirement plan.

If you would prefer to leave your qualified tax-deferred plan to another individual such as an adult child, understand that unlike your spouse, a child will not be allowed to defer the RMD distributions until he or she turns 70 ½; the child will be required to begin taking RMDs from the plan immediately. This can pose some problems if the child is in a high income tax bracket because your gift to them will be diminished substantially by the income taxes he or she incurs at his or her effective tax rate. But assuming the child does not take large additional distributions from the account (which would incur even more taxes), the majority of the assets will continue to enjoy tax-deferred growth. You can also work with an attorney to set up a trust which, if properly drafted, can accept the RMDs from the account on behalf of the child, which can then me managed by a trustee. This is a great option if the child requires assistance in managing money.

The least preferable option, and one that occurs all too often, is to either leave the assets outright to an estate, or to a trust that is not properly structured to receive retirement distribution for a beneficiary. If this happens, the entire account must become payable to the estate or trust within five years. Estates and trusts have much smaller tax brackets (resulting in much higher effective tax rates) than individuals, and income tax liability can be devastating. A substantial distribution to an estate or improperly drafted trust could result in half of the gift disappearing into the hands of the tax man.

This is not to imply that someone should turn their nose up at a gift of retirement assets from a family member! Speaking personally, I would certainly take a taxable gift over no gift at all. But it’s worth talking about the ideal recipients of gifts from tax-deferred retirement plans so that you can maximize the gifts you make to your family members. Proper primary and secondary beneficiary designations are a key part of any estate plan, and part of what you are paying your estate planner to do. Ensuring that you select the proper beneficiaries for your plan will give you and your family the peace of mind you deserve from your years of hard work and saving.

creates wills and trusts for families who want to feel secure that their loved ones are cared-for. Philip is a trust and estate attorney based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Philip is the author of Trustee University: The Guidebook to Best Practices for Family Trustees. available at Amazon.com in paperback or Kindle edition (free chapter available here!) He also works with trustees and beneficiaries who need help with their trusts. You can contact him here.

Keywords: trusts and estates, Minnesota wills, revocable trusts, estate attorney, probate, estate planning

There can be a lot of confusion about probate and how it relates to someone’s estate plan. It’s typically talked about as if it were something to be avoided at all costs, lest you bankrupt your family. Talking to someone about the probate process often generates a lot of questions about the basics: What is probate? Is it expensive? It’s bad, right? How do you skip it?

closeup of a Last Will and Testament documentProbate is the process by which the court system supervises the division of an estate. “Estate” is the term given to the assets and debts held by someone at the time of their passing. A will, revocable trust, and other planning documents are created to govern what happens to the estate during the probate process (and in some cases to skip it altogether).

Not all estates will go through probate, but before I explain why, it’s important to understand three basic types of property that affect the probate estate: joint property, non-probate property, and probate property. The amount of these three types of property you have will determine not only whether your estate will go through probate, but whether the probate proceedings will be formal or informal. Spoiler: formal probate can be expensive and time consuming. Informal probate — at least in Minnesota — isn’t so bad.

Joint property, specifically property that is owned in joint tenancy with rights of survivorship (JTWROS) is property that is owned equally and in undivided shares with at least one other person. A common example of joint property is the home where someone lives with his or her spouse or significant other. If the house is deeded in the names of both owners in jointly tenancy with rights of survivorship, then the property transfers automatically at the death of the first owner to the surviving owner. The county office responsible for keeping property records will need to be notified of the passing of one of the joint owners, but aside from this, the transfer is automatic and happens outside of probate by operation of law. No probate proceeding is needed for property that is owned jointly.

Not all real estate titled in the names of multiple owners is JTWROS; property titled in the name of multiple people as tenants in common will not pass automatically to the other owners. In the case of tenants in common, the portion owned by the deceased owner is controlled by that person’s will (or if they don’t have a will, then the state’s intestacy statute). This is property that may have to be supervised in the probate process (property owned as tenants in common is probate property).

Non-probate property is very similar to JTWROS property because it is property that passes automatically at death without any probate supervision. If you have a life insurance policy, a retirement account, or an investment account which allows you to designate beneficiaries, this is typically non-probate property. The account will pass to that individual without the help of the probate court; the beneficiary will need to mail in a death certificate proving that a death has occurred, and the property becomes theirs. There can be various tax consequences with these types of transfers, so be very careful who you name as a beneficiary (a transfer of a 401K to a non-family member can cause a large amount of income tax liability which may not have occurred if the account was given to a spouse, for example). Be careful here . . . if you name your estate as the beneficiary of these accounts, then this non-probate property will suddenly become probate property, and will be controlled by your will. This can be particularly problematic for tax-deferred accounts like 401Ks and IRAs, which can cause huge unintended tax consequences. You probably shouldn’t do this.

There are other types of non-probate property, such as real estate that is titled with a transfer-on-death-deed (TODD). Any property titled in the name of a properly drafted revocable or irrevocable trust, subject to transfer rules, is also non-probate property. This property is removed from the probate estate and will be transferred to beneficiaries according to the terms of the trust document by operation of law.

Lastly we have probate property, which is, loosely, “everything else.” All of your “stuff” that is title in your name at death: your tangible personal property that has not been added to a trust, your bank accounts without beneficiary designations, your cars, your jewelry, etc.  All of this property is controlled by your will and is subject to probate. A Minnesota estate that is less than $50,000 in value will typically be allowed to skip the probate process and instead transfer via an Affidavit of Collection, though there are exceptions.

Probate proceedings in some states can be an all-out lawyer brawl and can get very expensive. Fortunately, most estates that go through the probate process in Minnesota will go through informally (it pays to be Minnesota Nice!). An affidavit is filed with the court and notice is given to the estate’s interested parties. The probate attorney is then able to distribute the probate assets subject to transfer rules and claims from creditors (due to notice requirements, this can be a slow process). If the estate is exceptionally large, if it is insolvent (the person dies with more debts than assets), if there is a dispute among family members, or if the assets are complicated, then there may be a formal probate which is typically more expensive and has a higher level of attorney and judicial involvement.

Probate laws and estate taxation laws are unique to each state. Make sure you consider your state’s laws carefully before making any estate planning decisions (this is where I mention that you should hire an attorney who specialized in estate planning). Probate doesn’t have to be the nightmare that everyone thinks it is, but that assumes your estate is not only planned properly, but is also executed according to your plan.  If you have questions, I can help.

creates wills and trusts for families who want to feel secure that their loved ones are cared-for. Philip is a trust and estate attorney based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Philip is the author of Trustee University: The Guidebook to Best Practices for Family Trustees. available at Amazon.com in paperback or Kindle edition (free chapter available here!) He also works with trustees and beneficiaries who need help with their trusts. You can contact him here.

Keywords: trusts and estates, Minnesota wills, revocable trusts, estate attorney, probate, estate planning